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Sinners


Sinners of the Inferno

 

Paolo and Francesca

 

Paolo and Francesca are doomed to spend eternity among the lustful of the second circle of the Inferno.  Just as in life, they were swept up by passions, in death, they are whirled about in an eternal windstorm.  Francesca had an arranged marriage to Gianciotto Malatesta, Paolo's brother.  She married him by proxy through Paolo and did not even realize she was married to him until the day after the wedding.   In one of the most memorable scenes of the entire Commedia, Francesca recounts to Dante and Virgil her tragic love story.  She tells Dante that while reading Lancelot's tale, they fell in love and committed adultery.  When Gianciotto discovered that they were having an affair, he killed them both.  According to Francesca, love ensnared the couple and compelled them to sin. She claims that it is impossible to reject love, and that she had no choice but to sin.  According to Francesca, love seized her such that she cannot escape its grasp even in the depths of Hell:  “Love, which absolves no one beloved from loving, / seized me so strongly with his charm that, / as you see, it has not left me yet”.[1] Upon hearing Francesca's speech, Dante becomes overwhelmed with pity and faints.  He falls to the ground as though he were dead:  “While the one spirit said this / the other wept, so that for pity / I swooned as if in death”. [2]

 

 

Amor, ch'ha nullo amato amar perdona,
mi prese del costui piacer sì forte,
che, come vedi, ancor non m'abbandona. (Inf. V. 103-105)

 

Flaxman_Paolo_and_Francesca.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. The Lovers Punished. Dante faints after hearing Paolo and Francesca's tragic love story. 'As falls a lifeless body, down I fell.' Inf. V 112. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_the_lustful.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Second Circle of hell: The Lustful. 'Love brought us to one death. Caina waits/ The soul, who spilt our life.' Inf. V 105-106. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Paolo_and_Francesca.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Paolo and Francesca. 'Bard! willingly/ I would address those two together coming/ Which seem so light before the wind.' Inf. V 72-74. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Paolo_and_Francesca_kiss.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Paolo and Francesca: The kiss. 'In its leaves that day/ we read no more.' Inf. V 134-135. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Tristian_and_Isolde.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Tristian and Isolde. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Traini.__The_lustful.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Traini: The Lustful. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Rome.__aeneas_and_Dido.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Aeneas and Dido. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> King_Arthurs_court_with_Lancelot_and_Galeot.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Lancelot and Galehaut in King Arthur's Court. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Lancelot_and_Guiveres_kiss.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Lancelot and Guinevere Kiss. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Assisi_amore_perverso.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">'Amore perverso'. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Dante_faints.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Dante Faints after hearing Paolo and Francesca's Tragic Love Story. 'I, though compassion fainting, seem'd not far/ from death, and like a corpse fell to the ground.' Inf. V. 37-38. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Campochiese_lustful_in_hell.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">The Lustful. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span>

 

 

 

Bertran de Born 


Bertran de Born suffers eternal torment among the schismatics of the Eighth Circle of the Inferno.  Bertran was a troubadour poet who used his gift to stir up strife and division between King Henry II of England and his son, Young King Henry.  The Son demanded that his father give him more territory, but he refused, and so, the son began a bloody rebellion.  For ten long years he waged war against his father, and whenever Young King Henry grew weary of fighting, Bertran renewed his strength by singing him one of his songs.  In the Inferno, Bertran is gruesomely punished for using poetry to incite discord amongst family members and his countrymen.  Within his own body, he must suffer the same unnatural division that he caused between father and son.  He holds his severed head by its hair and it swings to and fro like a lantern.  Bertran speaks through his decapitated head and tells Dante and Virgil that his punishment is perfectly just and in accordance with the law of the contrapasso.  The contrapasso rules the Dantean system of divine retribution and states that sinners must endure in the afterlife an exact and reciprocal punishment for their wicked deeds on earth.  [3]

 

 

Dor_Bertran_de_Born.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Bertran de Born. 'By the hair/ It bore the severed member lantern-wise/ Pendent in hand, which look'd at us, and said,/ Woe's me!' Inf. XXVIII. 116-119. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Dante_Virgil_and_Bertran_de_Born.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Virgil, Dante, and Bertran de Born. 'But Virgil roused me: What yet gazest on?/ Wherefore doth fasten yet thy sight below/ Amongst the maim'd and miserable shades!' Inf. XXIX. 4-6. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span>

 

 

 

Count Ugolino of Gherardesca


Count Ugolino's eternal place of torment is located in the depths of the Inferno among the political traitors of the ninth circle of hell.  His hunger for political power led him to shift political alliances between the feuding Guelf and Ghibelline factions, and to commit several treacherous deeds against the city of Pisa.  Archbishop Ruggieri, a former political ally, betrayed Ugolino by having him arrested and put to death in a most cruel manner.  Imprisoned in a tower without any food or water, Ugolino and his sons slowly and painfully starved to death.  In the Inferno, Ugolino will spend eternity immersed in a pool of ice and will forever gnaw at the nape of Ruggieri's neck. [4]

 

Dor_Ugolino_and_Sons_locked_in_Tower.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Ugolino and Sons locked in Tower. 'Then, not to make them sadder, I kept down/ My spirit in stillness.' Inf. XXXIII. 62-63. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_count_ugolino.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Ninth Circle of hell: Punishment of Traitors to Guests. (Count Ugolino). Inf. XXXIII. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Ugolino_in_Tower.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Ugolino in the Tower. 'Then, fasting got/ The mastery of grief.' Inf. XXXIII. 73-74. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_death_of_Ugolinos_sons.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Death of Ugolino's Sons. 'Hast no help/ For me, my father? There he died.' Inf. XXXIII. 68-69. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Ugolino.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Ugolino gnawing head of Ruggieri. 'Not more furiously/ On Menalippus' temples Tydeus gnawed,/ Than on that skull and on its garbage he.' Inf. XXXII 127-129. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span>

 

 

 

The Penitent of the Purgatorio

 


Buonconte of Montefeltro


Among the late penitents of the Ante-Purgatorio, Dante and Virgil meet Buonconte of Montefeltro, a man who had spent his entire life in sin.  He was mortally wounded during the Battle of Campaldino in 1289, and in the last moments of his life, he repented of all his wicked deeds.  Both an Angel and a Demon came to claim his soul and soon they began to fight over Buonconte's eternal fate.  The Angel wins his soul, and the demon takes revenge upon Buonconte's body by conjuring up a violent storm.  The flood waters carry Buonconte's body to the Arno River and bury it deep within the river bank.  [5]

 

 

Flaxman_Buonconte.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. The Deliverance of Buonconti. 'God's angel claimed me' Purg. V. 104. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_late_penitent_of_antePurgatory.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Ante-Purgatory. Purg. V. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Late_penitents.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Late Penitent. 'And there were some, who in the shady place/ Behind the rock were standing, as a man/ Through idleness might stand.' Purg. IV. 100-102. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span>

 

 

 

Marco Lombardo


Marco Lombardo was a virtuous man who lived in the second half of the thirteenth century.  Dante and Virgil meet him on the smoke-filled terrace of the wrathful.  The smoke represents the blindness of anger and forces the penitent to walk carefully and slowly.  Dante asks Lombardo if the motion of the Heavens causes the world and its people to become corrupt.  Lombardo explains to the pilgrim the stars are not responsible for people's bad behavior.  Everyone is born with free will and has the capacity to chose between good and evil.  Lombardo argues that without free will, God would unjustly condemn or reward mankind for actions over which they had no control. [6]

 


The Purification of the Penitent

 

While suffering from starvation, the Gluttons of the sixth terrace of the Purgatorio sing Psalm 51:  “Lord, you will open my lips and my mouth shall declare your praise"  [7].  Meanwhile, the Avaricious and Prodigal of the fifth terrace stretch themselves out upon the ground and sing Psalm 119:  “My soul has cleaved to the pavement: quicken me according to your word”  [8].

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domine, labia mea aperies, et os meum annuntiabit laudem tuam.  (Psalm 51)

 

Adhaesit pavimento anima mea:  vivifica me secundum verbum tuum.  (Psalm 119)

 

Gustave Doré. Marco Lombardo: Terrace of the Wrathful. 'Now who art thou, that through our smoke dost cleave,/ And speakest of us, as thou thyself e'en yet/ Dividedst time by calends?' Purg. XVI. 23-25.{'<br/>'}Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.
Gustave Doré. Marco Lombardo: Terrace of the Wrathful. 'Now who art thou, that through our smoke dost cleave,/ And speakest of us, as thou thyself e'en yet/ Dividedst time by calends?' Purg. XVI. 23-25.
Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.
Flaxman_the_gluttons.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. The Gluttons. 'Beneath it raised their hands a numerous brian,/ who to the leaves were muttering forth some cry,/ like clamorous children that entreat in vain.' Purg. XXIV. 106. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_avarious_and_spendthrifts_on_fifth_terrace.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Punishment of the Avaricious and Prodigal: Fifth Terrace of the Purgatorio. Purg. XXI. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Avarious_and_Prodigal_of_Purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Avaricious and Prodigal. 'Up, he exclaim'd, brother! upon thy feet/ Arise; err not; thy fellow servant I,/ Thine and all others, of one Sovran Power.' Purg. XIX. 131-133. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_the_gluttons_of_purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Gluttons: Forese Donati. 'And who/ Are those twain spirits, that escort thee there?/ Be it not said thou scorn's to talk with me.' Inf. XXIII. 47-49. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_terrace_of_gluttons.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Gluttons. 'The shadowy forms/ that seem'd things dead and dead again, drew in/ At their deep-delved orbs rare wonder of me/ Perceiving I had life.' Purg. XXIV. 4-7. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_punishment_of_gluttons_in_purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Penance of the Gluttons. 'At length, as undeceived, they went their way;/ And we approach the tree, whom vows and tears/ Sue to in vain; the mighty tree.' Purg. XXIV. 112-114. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span>

 

 

 

Gallery of Sinners of the Inferno 


Flaxman_Ugolino.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. Count Ugolino. 'There groping with my hands/ I sought each wretched corse, for sight had failed' Inf. XXXII 72. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Flaxman_the_lake_of_pitch.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. The Lake of Pitch. 'With grapple seized his hair all stiff with pitch.' Inf. XXII. 35. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Flaxman_Guido_of_Montefeltro.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. Guido of Montefeltro. A devil and St. Francis argue over Guido's eternal fate. 'When I was dead-from me Saint Francis came/ but one of the black cherubs sent him back/ exclaiming: wrong me not! His soul I claim.' Inf. XXVII 113. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_wrathful.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Wrathful. 'Now seest thou, son! / The souls of those, whom anger overcame.' Inf. VII. 188-119. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_wood_of_suicides.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Wood of Suicides. 'Haste now, the foremost cried, now haste thee, death!' Inf. XIII. 120. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Flaxman_Disease.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. The Vale of Disease. 'One on another's breast. One on the back/ recumbent. One all fours endured his pain.' Inf. XXIX 67. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_virtuos_pagans_in_Limbo.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Virtuos Pagans in Hell. 'Only so far afflicted, that we live/ desiring without hope.' Inf. IV. 38-39. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_virtuous_pagans_in_limbo_converse_with_dante.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Virtuos Pagans in hell. 'So I beheld united the bright school/ of him the monarch of sublimest song/ that o'er the others like an eagle soars.' Inf. IV. 89-91. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_the_wrathful.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Wrathful. 'My teach sage/ Aware, thrusting him back: Away, down there/ To the other dogs.' Inf. VIII. 39-41. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_thieves.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Theives. 'Amid this dread exuberance of woe/ Ran naked spirits wing'd with horrid fear,/ Nor hope had they of crevice where to hide/ or heliotrope to charm them out of view.' Inf. XXIV. 89-93. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_the_wrathful_in_river_Styx.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Wrathful. 'Soon as both embark'd:/ Cutting the waves, goes on the ancient prow,/ More deeply than with others it is wont.' Inf. VIII. 27-29. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_the_violent.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Blasphemers. 'Unceasing was the play of wretched hands,/ Now this, now that way glancing, to shake off/ The heat, still falling fresh.' Inf. XIV. 37-39. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_schismatics.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Schismatics. 'Call thou to mind/ Piero Medicina, if again/ Returning, thou behold'st the pleasant land/ That from Vercelli slopes to Mercabò.' Inf. XXVIII 69-72. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_panderers.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Panderers. 'Ah! how they made them bound at first stripe!' Inf. XVIII. 36. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_nimrod.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Nimrod. 'Oh senseless spirit! let thy horn for thee/ Interpret: therewith vent thy rage, if rage/ Or other passion wring thee.' Inf. XXXI. 64-66. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_NicholasIII.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Pope Nicholas. 'There stood I like the friar that doth shrive/ A wretch for murder doom'd' Inf. XIX. 51-52. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Myhrra.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Myrrha. 'That is the ancient soul/ of wretched Myrrha.' Inf. XXX. 38-39. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Malebranche.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Malebranche. 'Scarcely had his feet/ Reach'd to the lowest of the bed beneath,/ When over us the steep they reach'd.' Inf. XXIII. 52-54. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Inferno_XXX.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Gianni Schicchi. 'That sprite of air is Schicchi; in like mood/ Of random mischief vents he still his spite.' Inf. XXX. 33-34. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Farinata.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Farinata. 'Here answer thus return'd/ The arch-heretics are here, accompanied/ By every sect their followers.' Inf. IX. 124-126. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Traini_Pisa_Sowers_of_Discord.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sowers of Discord. Source: Dante Alighieri, and Corrado Ricci. La Divina Commedia. Milano: U. Hoepli, 1921. Volumes 1-3. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_falsifiers.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Falsifiers. 'The crust/ Come down from underneath in flakes, like scales/ Scraped from the bream, or fish of broader mail.' Inf. XXIX 79-81. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Farinata_Dante_and_Virgil.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Farinata. 'He, soon as there I stood at the tomb's foot,/ Eyed me a space; then in a disdainful mood,/ Addressed me: Say what ancestors were thine.'. Inf. X. 40-42. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Cocytus.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Cocytus. 'Look how thou walkest. Take/ Good heed thy soles do tread not on the heads/ of thy poor brethren.' Inf. XXXII. 20-22. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Calaphas.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Calaphas. 'That pierced spirit, whom intent/ Thou view'st, was he who gave the Pharisees/ counsel, that it were fitting for one man./ To suffer for the people.' Inf. XXIII. 117-120. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Bocca_degli_Abati.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Bocca degli Abati. 'Then seizing on his hinder scalp I cried:/ Name thee, or not a hair shall tarry here.' Inf. XXXII. 97-98. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_brunetto.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Brunetto. 'Ser Brunetto!/ And are ye here?' Inf. XV. 28-29. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_barrator_being_punished.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Fifth Bolgia: Malebranche devils torment sinner. 'This said/ They grappled him with more than hundred hooks.' Inf. XXI. 50-51. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_avarous_and_prodigal.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Avaricious and Prodigal. 'Not all the gold that is beneath the moon,/ or ever hath been, or these toil-worn souls./ Might purchase rest for one.' Inf. VII. 65-67. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Anastasius.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Anastasius. 'From the profound abyss, behind the lid/ Of a great monument we stood retired.' Inf. XI. 6-7. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_heretics.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Sixth Circle of hell: Punishment of the Heretics. Inf. X. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_Thieves.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Punishment of the Thieves of the Eighth Circle. Inf. XXIV. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Plutus.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Plutus. 'Curst Wolf! thy furty inward on thyself/ Prey, and consume thee!' Inf. VII. 8-9. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_the_violent.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. The Violent of the Seventh Circle of hell. Inf. XII. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Dante_and_Virgil_among_the_falsifiers.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Falsifiers. 'Then my sight/ Was livelier to explore the depth, wherein/ The minister of the most mighty Lord,/ All-searching Justice, dooms to punishment/ The forgers noted on her dread record.' Inf. XXIX. 52-56. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Pier_della_Vigna.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Pier della Vigna: Wood of Suicides. 'And straight the trunk exclaimed, 'Why pluck'st thou me?'. Inf. XIII. 34. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Inferno. New Edition. New York. P.F. Collier, limited, 1883. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_Simonists.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Eighth Circle of hell: Punishment of Corrupt Clergyman. Inf. XIX. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_ Punishment of Falsifiers.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Eighth Circle of hell: Punishment of the Falsifiers. Inf. XXIX. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_giants_of_eighth_circle.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Giants of the Eighth Circle of hell. Inf. XXIXI. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_Barrators.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Eight Circle: Punishment of the Heretics. Inf. XXIII. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span>

 

 

Gallery of the Penitent of the Purgatorio

 


Flaxman_the_proud.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. The Proud. 'Those shades were journeying on beneath a weight/ like that which often doth in dreams oppress.' Purg. XI 26. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Flaxman_limbo.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. Limbo. 'With little innocents I there abide/ seized by the fangs of death in early prime.' Purg. XVII. 31. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_negligent_rulers.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Negligent Rulers. 'Salve Regina, on the grass and flowers,/ Here chanting, I beheld those spirits sit,/ Who not beyond the valley could be seen.' Purg. VII. 82-84. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Botticelli_the_proud.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Examples of Humility on the Terrace of the Proud: The Annunciation, King David dancing before the Ark of the Covenant, and Trajan and the widow. Purg. X. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_Penance_of_the_envious.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Penance of the Envious of the Second Terrace. Purg. XIV. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_Pride_punished.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Penance of the Proud of the First Terrace. Purg. XI. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_angel of generosity.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. The Angel of Generosity. Virgil and Dante Ascend to the Third Terrace of the Purgatorio. Purg. XV. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_slothfull.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. Penance of the Slothful: Fourth Terrace of the Purgatorio. Purg. XVIII. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Botticelli_the_envious.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Sandro Botticelli. The Penance of the Envious: Second Terrace. Purg. XIIII. Source: Dante Alighieri, Sandro Botticelli, Mario Casela, Henry Francis Cary. La Divina Commedia or Divine Vision of Dante Alighieri. New York. Nonesuch Press, limited, 1928. Falvey Memorial Library. Special Collections.</span> Dor_Dante_and_Virgil_among_the_lustful.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Penance of the Lustful. 'And when I saw/ Spirits along the flame proceeding, I/ Between their footsteps and mine own was fain/ To share by turns my view.' Purg. XXV. 119-122. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_Sordello.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Sordello. 'Through every orb/ Of that sad region, he replied, thus far/ Am I arrived.' Purg. VII. 21-23. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_Virgil_and_Dante_among_the_envious_of_Purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Penance of the Envious. 'Who then, amongst us here aloft,/ Hath brought; thee, if thou weeniest to return?' Inf. XIII. 129-130. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_terrace_of_slothful.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Terrace of the Slothful. 'But not long/ Slumber'd: for suddenly a multitude,/ The steep already turning from behind/ Rush'd on.' Inf. XVIII. 87-90. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_wrathful_of_purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. 'Long as 'its lawful for me, shall my steps/ Follow on thine; and since the cloudy smoke/ Forbids the seeing, hearing in its stead/ shall keep us join's' Inf. XVI. 32-35. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Flaxman_an_earthquake.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">John Flaxman. An Earthquake. 'Viewing the spirits as we went along,/ who each, stretched out resumed his mournful strain.' Purg. XX. 143. Source: Dante Alighieri, Ichabod Charles Wright, and John Flaxman. The Divine Comedy. 5th ed. London: Bell & Daldy, 1867.</span> Dor_the_lustful_of_purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Penance of the Lustful. 'Then from the bosom of the burning mass, O god of mercy! heard I sung, and felt/ No less desire to turn.' Purg. XXV 117-119. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_the_proud_of_Purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Penance of the Proud. 'With equal pace, as oxen in the yoke,/ I, with that laden spirit, journey'd on/ Long as the mild instructor suffered me.' Inf. XII. 1-3. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_Pia.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. Ante-Purgatory: Pia Tolomei. 'Then remember me/ I once was Pia.' Purg. V. 130-131. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span> Dor_Envious_of_Purgatorio.jpg<br/><span style="font-size: 70%;">Gustave Doré. The Envious of the Purgatorio. 'E'en thus the blind and poor,/ Near the confessionals, to crave an alms,/ Stand, each his head upon his fellow's sunk. Purg. XII. 55-57. Source: Dante Alighieri, Henry Francis Cary, and Gustave Doré. Purgatory and Paradise. new ed. New York [etc.]: Cassell & company, limited, 1883.</span>

 

 

References

1.  Citation:  Inf. V.  104-105.  Dante Alighieri, and Mark Musa. Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

2.  Citation:  Inf. V.  142.  Dante Alighieri, and Mark Musa. Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

3.  Bertran de Born.  Inf.  XXVIII

4.  Count Ugolino.  Inf.  XXXII-XXXIII.

5.  Buonconte of Montefeltro.  Purg. V.

6.  Marco Lombardo.  Purg.  XVI.

7.  Citation:  Purg.  XXIII.  11.  Dante Alighieri, and Mark Musa. Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

8.  Citation.  Purg.  XIX.  73.  Dante Alighieri, and Mark Musa. Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.

9.  All Psalms from The New American Bible.

10.  Carroll, John S. Exiles of Eternity: An Exposition of Dante's Inferno. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1971.

11.  Carroll, John S. Prisoners of Hope: An Exposition of Dante's Purgatorio. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1971.

12.  Raffa, Guy P. The Complete Danteworlds: A Reader's Guide to the Divine Comedy. Chicago ; London: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

13.  Reade, W. H. V. 1872-1943. The Moral System of Dante's Inferno. Port Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1969.