The Story of Belgium, selection from p. 6, 1915, Griffis, William Elliot, published by F.A. Owen Pub. Co. and Hall & McCreary: Chicago, USA
Dogs were an alternative mode of transportation to the horse. The canine served well in combat situations, pulling artillery in addition to their duty as rescue aid. In civilian life, dogs offered a cheap means to move materials for those who could not afford a horse. In fact, the majority of the population could not afford horse ownership, and many people would borrow or rent steeds for special occasions. For purposes of daily work, such as the milk peddling seen here, dogs supplied economical, expendable labor.
"White Dandy", or, Master and I: a horse's story: a companion to "Black Beauty", front cover, Melville, Velma Caldwell, published by J.S. Ogilvie Publishing Company: New York, USA
Although marketed as "a companion to Black Beauty," Melville's book actually has nothing to do with Anna Sewell's novel beyond a common theme. White Dandy, like Black Beauty, is also a novel about the cruelties many animals suffered in the nineteenth century and is also narrated by a horse. Though Melville's tale lacks finesse (and indeed is quite graphic in places), it demonstrates the concern some felt about the treatment of animals and is clearly meant to make readers consider their moral responsibility to animals in their care.